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Vol. 4 (2024)

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Authors in this issue:

Andrew E. P. Mitchell, Sondra Butterworth Douglas Crispin-Rodríguez, Douglas Crispin-Castellanos, Nila Ledesma-Céspedes, Gisier Reyes-Cortiña, Antonia María Lamorú-Pardo, Ennis Ivonnet-Gutiérrez Jerónimo Araneo, Franco Ivan Escudero, Maria Agustina Muñoz Arbizu, Camila Belén Trivarelli, Margarita Camila Van Den Dooren, Marcela Lichtensztejn, Carlos Oscar Lepez Iraida Céspedes-Proenza, Yarilín La-O-Rojas, Yusdelkys García-Bacallao, Ladisleny Leyva-Samuel, Yanelilian Padín-Gámez, Douglas Crispin-Rodríguez Rosa María Montano-Silva, Yoneisy Abraham-Millán, Gisier Reyes-Cortiña, Felicia Silva-Vázquez, Thalía Fernández-Breffe, Yaliesky Diéguez-Mayet Tania Marleni Reyes Carrasco, Jennifer Soledad Maisares, Brigitte Sthefanny Lecca Egusquiza, Briggite Fiorella Lecca Egusquiza, Ana Cochi Sarzo, Gladys Norma Vargas Juana Paulina Carhuamaca Barbaran, Rosa Laura Cuitiño, Nilda Susana Gómez, Cristian Ezequiel Jaramillo, Antonella Soledad Meza, Ileana Belen Nieto Maria Lilda Barzola Baez, Selene Maribel Ramos, Estela del Valle Vasquez Ramona Cristina Radaelli, Esmeralda Marina Quipildor Malasquez Noelia Campos, Maria Noelia Farina, Carla del Valle Figueroa, Cintia Delvis Jiménez Jimenez, Judith Ivonne Lavado Avalos, Yamil Marco Ismael Mamani, Damaris Ariadna Masse, Mario Exequiel Medina, Alejandra Mabel Rico, Irma Lidia Rojas Gisela Noemí Escalante, Romina Noelia Ganz, Daiana Loreley Mendez Minetti ,

Published: January 1, 2024

Contents

2024-02-21 Original
Designing an accessible and equitable conference and the evaluation of the barriers to research inclusion for rare disease communities

Introduction: The United Kingdom Rare Diseases Framework, published in 2021, addresses the lack of diversity in rare disease research, particularly in clinical trials, due to intersecting issues related to rare disease symptoms and health inequalities. The framework outlines the government's commitment to improving the lives of the 3.5 million people living with rare conditions in the United Kingdom.
Objective: The primary objective is to advance equality, diversity, and inclusion in research by developing innovative methods to engage with communities, establish trust, and enhance the participation and voices of underrepresented and underserved communities.
Methods: The conference was held in May 2023, bringing together voices with lived experiences from rare and diverse communities to meet and discuss with established researchers, policy influencers and advocates. The evaluation design was developed using the Program Logic Model and utilised a conference evaluation form on barriers to inclusion.
Results: The Rare Disease Community identifies disability as the primary obstacle to inclusion. Social Care and Public Health Communities and Clinical Research Communities identified a need for more cultural competency. The Diverse Community selected psychosocial issues, and the Academic Community identified funding as the most significant barrier.
Conclusions: The Community of Practice workshops showed the variety of lived experiences and potential barriers people confront for inclusion in research. Listening to individual viewpoints was crucial to creating or repairing community trust. The Academic Community felt that research funders and ethics review boards must adapt their institutional practices to include financial resources for outreach and participation in research design.

By Andrew E. P. Mitchell, Sondra Butterworth

2024-02-17 Original
Comprehensive care strategy at El Guayabo Penitentiary Center

Introduction: this research is based on the framework of comprehensive oral health care for people deprived of liberty, to ensure that health services ensure their continuity of care, with a quality of care similar to that accessed by the population does not have this limitation.
Objective: to develop a comprehensive oral health care strategy at the “El Guayabo” Penitentiary Center on the Isla de la Juventud from October 2021 to October 2022.
Methods: an intervention study was carried out on 227 inmates, matching the universe and the sample. The variables were taken into account: age, oral diseases, level of oral health knowledge, oral health knowledge survey and results of the strategy. With prior informed consent, a survey of knowledge of oral health, Stomatological Clinical History, curative and rehabilitative treatment was carried out on each of the patients who were part of the research.
Results: before the intervention was applied, dental caries and poor level of knowledge predominated in 71,3% and 66,9% of the inmates respectively; managing to reduce the prevalence of dental caries and improve the level of knowledge to be regulated in the majority of inmates after applying the educational strategy; In addition, 47% of the sample was cured.
Conclusions: the implementation of the comprehensive oral health care strategy had a significant impact on the reduction of oral diseases among inmates.

By Douglas Crispin-Rodríguez, Douglas Crispin-Castellanos, Nila Ledesma-Céspedes, Gisier Reyes-Cortiña, Antonia María Lamorú-Pardo, Ennis Ivonnet-Gutiérrez

2023-12-29 Original
Wellness and Integrative Health Education Campaign by undergraduate students in Music Therapy

Introduction: educational experiences based on the model of critical pedagogy favor the appropriation of knowledge and information used in the fields of social and cultural exchange as well as in the acquisition of competences that contribute to the graduate's profile through the operative and instrumental design, as is the case of the health education campaign on wellbeing and integral health carried out by students of the Bachelor's Degree in Music Therapy at the University of Business and Social Sciences (UCES).
Methods: the study is qualitative with a narrative approach and dialogic analysis.
Results: educational objectives were achieved in a double sense on the one hand in students of the Bachelor's Degree in Music Therapy and in the community participating in the activity of the health education campaign of wellbeing and integral health within the framework of the evaluation instance of the bimonthly optional curricular space: Public Health developed on October 6, 2023, highlighting the relevance of the task and the value of dimensioning the discipline of music therapy in health sciences.
Conclusions: the contributions referred to are materialized as symbolic elaborations that resignify the educational experience, the cooperative learning process, the strengthening of competences defined in the graduate's profile, the integration of music therapy in public health scenarios and devices, as well as the community practice mediated by a programmed activity, elaborated, and developed in situ linking the relationship between the university and the community.

By Jerónimo Araneo, Franco Ivan Escudero, Maria Agustina Muñoz Arbizu, Camila Belén Trivarelli, Margarita Camila Van Den Dooren, Marcela Lichtensztejn, Carlos Oscar Lepez

2024-02-17 Original
Educational intervention on oral cancer in high-risk patients over 35 years of age

Introduction: oral cancer is one of the top ten locations of cancer incidence in the world, it is more common in men after 40 years of age.
Objective: to develop an educational intervention in patients over 35 years of age with a high risk of oral cancer.
Method: a quasi-experimental educational intervention study was carried out in office 28 belonging to the “José Lázaro Fonseca López del Castillo” Teaching Stomatology Clinic, of the Isla de la Juventud Special Municipality, in the period 2020-2022. The study universe consisted of 1010 patients from the office, the population of 598 patients over 35 years of age and the sample of 156 patients at high risk of suffering from oral cancer.
Results: in the sample, the age group of 45 to 55 years predominated for 35,9% and light skin color for 67,9%, with equality regarding sex. The main risk factors found were poor oral hygiene, smoking and traumatic irritants, achieving a decrease in their prevalence after the intervention.
Conclusions: it was possible to considerably modify the risk factors, the protective factors and the high risk of suffering from oral cancer, so the educational intervention applied had a positive impact.

By Iraida Céspedes-Proenza, Yarilín La-O-Rojas, Yusdelkys García-Bacallao, Ladisleny Leyva-Samuel, Yanelilian Padín-Gámez, Douglas Crispin-Rodríguez

2024-02-08 Original
Educational program “Healthy smile” for education preschool infants: knowledge on oral health

Introduction: early childhood caries is a non-communicable disease of high prevalence worldwide, in Cuba and on the Isle of Youth. Prevention and control approaches encompass changing personal behaviors, working with families and educators, and developing health policies, creating enabling environments, promoting health, and directing health services toward universal health coverage.
Objective: determine the effectiveness of the “Healthy Smile” program for preschool children.
Methods: a quasi-experimental before-after research was carried out where the sample was 95 preschool children from the La Demajagua-Atanagildo Cajigal towns in the period 2021-2023.
Results: before the educational intervention, the level of regular and poor knowledge prevailed in 76,8% and 16,8% respectively of the infants with a standard deviation of ±2,5; The level of knowledge increased after implementing the educational program, obtaining a good level of knowledge with 81,1% (77) with a tendency towards a regular level of knowledge 18,9% (18); standard deviation of ±1,4. The Student T test gave a value of tcalculated = 13,803, gl = 94 and p value = 0.000; therefore, there was evidence to reject the null hypothesis and accept the investigative hypothesis.
Conclusions: the implementation of the “Healthy Smile” program, involving families and educators, turned out to be effective since it modified ways and styles of life, also increasing the level of knowledge about oral health of infants.

By Rosa María Montano-Silva, Yoneisy Abraham-Millán, Gisier Reyes-Cortiña, Felicia Silva-Vázquez, Thalía Fernández-Breffe, Yaliesky Diéguez-Mayet

2023-12-31 Reviews
Healthcare Disparities and Cultural Factors in India and Argentina

This scientific text explores the healthcare systems, cultural factors, and health challenges in the Republic of India and Argentina. It begins by emphasizing the importance of understanding how disease is perceived and experienced differently by individuals due to cultural and socioeconomic factors. It highlights that people's definitions of health and illness influence their healthcare-seeking behavior. The text provides insights into India's complex social and economic landscape, characterized by significant diversity in language, religion, and caste. Despite its economic growth, India faces challenges such as poverty, illiteracy, malnutrition, and gender inequality. These factors contribute to a high burden of noncommunicable diseases, respiratory infections, and other health issues. The healthcare system in India is described as a mix of public and private providers, with access to quality care often determined by one's economic status. Comparatively, the Argentine healthcare system is discussed, which includes public, private, and prepaid sectors. Argentina's constitution guarantees access to healthcare as a fundamental right, and public expenditure on health is used to provide free coverage with easy access for the population. The text concludes by emphasizing the importance of addressing health disparities and improving healthcare access, particularly for vulnerable populations. It underscores the role of nursing professionals in providing culturally sensitive care and facilitating effective communication to enhance patient outcomes.

By Tania Marleni Reyes Carrasco, Jennifer Soledad Maisares, Brigitte Sthefanny Lecca Egusquiza, Briggite Fiorella Lecca Egusquiza, Ana Cochi Sarzo, Gladys Norma Vargas

2023-12-25 Reviews
Death as a thread of Cultural and Religious Identity

This article approaches death from an anthropological perspective, exploring its historical evolution and its influence on diverse cultures and societies. It begins by examining how anthropology has contributed to our understanding of death, from its roots in the supernatural to contemporary approaches. Three pivotal periods in anthropological death research are identified: the twentieth-century evolutionary, the heyday of symbolic anthropology, and the current interdisciplinary era. The analysis focuses on the impact of European colonization in the New World and how anthropology emerged as a tool for documenting and understanding cultural and religious changes among indigenous populations who encountered the colonizers. In addition, it explores funerary beliefs and practices in diverse cultures, from the Incas in Argentina to contemporary native cultures in the same country. It highlights rituals and conceptions of death in different religions, including Catholicism, Buddhism, Islam and others. The article underscores the importance of appreciating the cultural diversity surrounding death in a globalized world. Despite superficial differences, death remains a universal theme that raises fundamental questions about life and transcendence. Understanding how different cultures confront and give meaning to death is essential to promote cross-cultural empathy and respect in today's society.

By Juana Paulina Carhuamaca Barbaran, Rosa Laura Cuitiño, Nilda Susana Gómez, Cristian Ezequiel Jaramillo, Antonella Soledad Meza, Ileana Belen Nieto

2024-01-06 Reviews
Traditional Medicine in Latin America: a holistic approach to health

Traditional medicine has been an integral part of human healthcare for centuries, offering a holistic approach to health that goes beyond merely treating physical symptoms. In Latin America, this approach has deep historical roots and has played a significant role in the region's cultural identity. such as social rejection of biomedicine, limited access to biomedical services, and the high cost of medical care. However, there has been a decline in the prevalence of traditional medicine in recent decades, with a decrease in traditional healers and an increasing reliance on biomedical care. This trend varies across different regions, but overall, there is a diminishing number of traditional healers, raising concerns about the potential disappearance of traditional medicine. Despite these challenges, traditional medicine remains a valuable part of healthcare in Latin America. Its cultural significance, holistic approach, and the trust it garners from certain communities make it relevant even in today's rapidly advancing medical landscape. Looking to the future, the field of medicine is poised for significant developments, including advancements in diagnosis, surgery, and treatment methods. While antibiotics have been essential in the fight against infectious diseases, bacterial resistance is a growing concern. Future medical breakthroughs are expected to involve vaccines, gene therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and stem cell transplants. In conclusion, traditional medicine in Latin America reflects a holistic approach to healthcare deeply intertwined with cultural and historical contexts. As modern medicine continues to evolve, there is potential for integrating traditional and scientific knowledge to create a more comprehensive approach to health and well-being, respecting the rich heritage of traditional practices.

By Maria Lilda Barzola Baez, Selene Maribel Ramos, Estela del Valle Vasquez

2023-12-25 Short communications
Perception of illness and death in the nursing setting

This paper delves into how nurses perceive illness and death and how it impacts their daily practice. Nurses' perceptions are shaped by their educational background, professional experience, personal beliefs, and cultural context. They receive training in disease management and palliative care, providing them with the knowledge to approach these situations professionally. However, personal experiences, beliefs, and emotions also influence their response. The evolution of medical science has led to the medicalization of death, with nurses often caring for dying patients in hospital settings. The emotional burden on nurses necessitates emotional self-awareness and support networks to manage stress and trauma effectively. Cultural influences play a significant role in how nurses perceive illness and death. Some cultures avoid open discussions about death, creating communication barriers. Nurses must develop culturally sensitive communication skills to provide respectful care. Various medical traditions, such as Western medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Indigenous medicine, offer different perspectives on illness and death. Cultural differences extend to funeral practices and beliefs about the afterlife. Anonymous interviews with nurses highlighted their diverse responses to death and the emotional toll it can take. Support programs and psychological assistance should be available to help nurses cope with these challenges. In conclusion, nurses' perceptions of illness and death are multifaceted, influenced by education, experience, personal beliefs, and culture. Emotional management and institutional support are crucial for effective patient care. Creating an environment that encourages open communication and respect for these issues is essential. Nurses must engage in ongoing self-reflection to provide compassionate care and address the complex emotional aspects of their profession.

By Ramona Cristina Radaelli, Esmeralda Marina Quipildor

2024-01-06 Short communications
The importance of public health in "Sólo Gente"

Public health is a crucial issue in any society, and Argentina is no exception. Through the implementation of effective policies and programs, it seeks to promote and protect the health of the entire population, prevent diseases and improve the quality of life of citizens. This paper will analyze the importance of public health, a central theme in the movie "Sólo Gente". The plot of the movie takes place in a dystopian future where society is highly controlled and people live under constant surveillance. Through this futuristic setting, the film indirectly addresses several aspects related to public health. In the film, the government has exceptional control over people's health and uses advanced technology to monitor and control their physical and mental well-being. This depiction raises ethical and social questions about privacy and free will. It also highlights the importance of people having autonomy over their bodies and health decisions. In the context of public health, the film also shows how the state can use its power to prioritize certain aspects of health over others; another important aspect is the importance of equitable access to health care and how exclusion from the system can lead to negative consequences for those who do not have access to health services. In conclusion, the film "Just People" addresses several issues related to public health, such as privacy, individual liberty, health prioritization, health care systems, and equity in access to health services.

By Malasquez Noelia Campos, Maria Noelia Farina, Carla del Valle Figueroa, Cintia Delvis Jiménez Jimenez, Judith Ivonne Lavado Avalos, Yamil Marco Ismael Mamani, Damaris Ariadna Masse, Mario Exequiel Medina, Alejandra Mabel Rico, Irma Lidia Rojas

2023-12-25 Short communications
Influence of culture on disease perception

This scientific paper explores the complex relationship between culture, health, and disease, highlighting how cultural beliefs and practices shape perceptions of health and illness. Culture is described as a complex system of knowledge and customs transmitted from generation to generation, encompassing language, customs, and values. The paper emphasizes that concepts of health and disease can vary significantly across cultures. Different cultural backgrounds lead to diverse interpretations of what constitutes health or illness. Cultural beliefs influence how individuals perceive their health and respond to medical interventions. The text examines the example of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which differs from Western medicine by focusing on restoring balance and harmonizing energies within the body. The contrast between these two medical paradigms highlights the impact of culture on healthcare approaches. The paper also discusses the cultural acceptance of practices that may be harmful to health, such as incest in certain societies. These practices are considered sacred customs within those cultures, reflecting how cultural ideologies can shape disease risks. Furthermore, the paper explores how cultural factors interact with political and economic forces to create specific health risks and behaviors within societies. It emphasizes that culture plays a pivotal role in shaping human behavior and social acceptance. The paper concludes by emphasizing the enduring influence of culture on perceptions of health and disease throughout history, highlighting how cultural beliefs and practices continue to impact individuals' health experiences and outcomes.

By Gisela Noemí Escalante, Romina Noelia Ganz, Daiana Loreley Mendez Minetti

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